Sunday, June 28, 2020

Autism in the United States and Canada Essay [Free Example]

Autism in the United States and Canada Essay Essay Prompt Research a specific disability: Autism trace the effect of policy, practices/services, and perspectives related to that disability over time in the United States and in another country. Compare and contrast now and then in the United States with regard to the disability in terms of policy, practices, and perspectives and draw comparisons and contrasts to the other country at similar times in history. Complete the graphic organizer with your research notes and sources. Autism in the United States Policies in the United States changed towards granting more grants to autism research to understand what may cause autism and what can be done to diagnose autism earlier. In 1997, NAAR awarded three grants ($150,000) to help five scientists research autism. That same year the Autism Genetic Research Exchange was founded by CAN. As more and more organizations sprang up to research autism, people now understand what autism is and how to diagnose it. Instead of autism becoming something that was underfunded and misunderstood, it became a devoted area of interest, spurring policy changes specifically in diagnoses. Autism was difficult to test because it lacked distinctive physical characteristics. It was not until the 1980’s that standardization of techniques to identify autism were attempted. Since then, the latest definition of autism (2013) includes asperger’s disorder and may be revised later in upcoming years. The update has widened the definition of autism making diagnoses of autism more common. â€Å"A quarter century ago, the best estimate was it affected one child in 2,000. In the 1990s, as the term came into common usage, a broader definition encompassed more cases. In 2007, a study found prevalence of one in 150† (Pitney, 2015, p. 8). In terms of perspective, people back then believed autism was caused by poor parenting. This was especially the case in the United States. One new article explains mothers were seen as cold to their children and that is why the kids developed autism. â€Å"theories about the origins of autism tended to blame mothers, for being â€Å"cold† and withholding their affections. Much has happened regarding attitudes and treatment. Most important: Autism is no longer something people have to deal with in isolation† (Angermann, 2014). Now that autism has become more commonplace, there is more research dedicated to autism and the broad spectrum of autism. The perspective has now changed from placing blame on individuals to wanting to understand and create room for dialogue. Autism in Canada Policy in Canada concerning autism has been in uphill battle. Parents back then had to resort to litigation to assure their children would get services in various provinces. While changes have taken place, and made it easier for autistic children to receive help in Canada, there is still problems in getting enough services. â€Å"Parents vividly described the stresses of caring for their children†¦policymakers in turn struggled to balance the needs of all children. Yet participants agreed on the need for more comprehensive services across the spectrum† (Shepherd Waddell, 2015, p. 3550). In terms of perspective, Canadians with autistic children have had to endure several obstacles in getting help for services but also dealing with the stigma of ignorance. That same article details attitudes from policymakers that autism was not the kind of illness that required early intervention. It was because of the efforts of the parents with autistic children that now early autism interventions have been created. It has gotten to now places like British Columbia are now attempting to secure funding for early intensive behavioral interventions. This shows more people in Canada are aware of the situation and are becoming proactive in the cause. This leads into practices. Children with autism in Canada had to face litigation in order to receive services. However, now, they are getting access to services as early as pre-school. While there is still a long way to go before autism becomes something that will be allowed for funding completely, it is progress that Canada did not have as early as ten years ago, that are now present. This and additional funding efforts have led to practices that include more autism awareness in schools and measure to diagnose and treat autism at earlier ages. References Angermann,  C. (2014, August 9). Autism: Then and now HT Health. Retrieved from Donvan,  J., Zucker,  C. (2016).  In a different key: The story of autism. Crown/Archetype. Pitney,  J.  J. (2015).  The politics of autism: Navigating the contested spectrum. Rowman Littlefield. Shepherd,  C.  A., Waddell,  C. (2015). A Qualitative Study of Autism Policy in Canada: Seeking Consensus on Children’s Services.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,  45(11), 3550-3564. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2502-x View or Download this full document in (.docx) format. --> Open Full Document Open full document and source list OR Order A Custom Written Essay Order a one-of-a-kind custom essay on this topic

Monday, May 25, 2020

Managers Should Run Businesses According To Shareholder Interests Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1479 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Managers have always been known to lead and direct an organisation, since the firm is owned by the shareholders but run by the management. Managers should run the business with the shareholders interest, thus the main objective of managers should be to maximise owners wealth by maximise amount of dividends paid out to shareholders. Since the amount of dividend can be represented by the current stock markets values of the firm ordinary share capital. As a result, the main interest of management is to take decision to maximise the stock value of company share. Furthermore, managers might interest others area rather than pure financial gain. Management would interest on companys responsibility to the environment and society, in turn to minimise the pollution to the environment. Secondly, managers interest on following the governments legislation, for example, not to produce any harmful product that break the law. Finally, management are also highly concerned on the term and condition of their staffs, and make sure they are fairly paid. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Managers Should Run Businesses According To Shareholder Interests Finance Essay" essay for you Create order However, there is no reason to assume that manager will always follow the interest of shareholder. Since salary of manager usually not based on the share price of firms value, therefore, manager might concentrate more on their own interest such as personal jet and commission paid of sales. In a corporation, the legal entity is separate and distinct from its owner, the shareholders and owners are separate from the management. Therefore, management is given responsibility for running the corporations affairs in shareholders interest. Conflict of interest happens when both parties want to maximise their benefit. The shareholders want to have a higher share price as more dividends can be paid; however, the managers are more interested on revenue because it means more expense can be made that are beneficial to them. By applying the fisher separation theory, it stated that if the manager and shareholder have the same perfect information with the same rational approach to decision making, they should have identical expectations, therefore, no conflict of interest is create. On the other hand, if the management and shareholder have delegated decision making with asymmetric information, it will generate an agent problem. Generally, there are number of ways where the interest of shareholders and managers may conflict, firstly, managers may wish to hold more cash and received perks like having a personal company car that would be the expenses on company, this will affect the firms profit and wealth, since managers have to face a trade-off from perks and firms wealth. In an example of a single owner-manager case, we assume the owner is also the manager, so, firm is owns and run by the owner. Illustrated with the graph below, with an x-axis of perk consume, Y-axis of Value of firm. The slope on the graph is -1; represent the owner has 100% of ownership. As the graph shown, if the perk consumption rises by 1 unit units, the values of firm will drop by 1 unit, so, there is an inverse relationship between perk consumption and firms wealth. For every one pound in perks consumed from owner, there will be a reduction of 1 pound in the values of firm. As a result, there is a trade off between firmss value and perks, the more the manager increase on perks, the more it reduces on the firms values. We can understand more about the conflict between shareholder and manager by studying the principal-agent relationship, where the agent (managers) act on the behalf of principal (shareholder), but the principal cannot monitor the actions of the agent( hidden action) or the principle does not have full set of information known to agent( hidden information). Those hidden action and information from principal create agent cost. In a multiple owners case, the original point at D. If a fraction of firm is sold, the insider (owner-manager)s holding will reduce to ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ±, and the outsider (potential buyer) now owns (1- ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ±). Now, the insiders will share the cost of perks taken with the others shareholders, for example, the cost to the owner-manager of consuming 1 of perk in the firm will no long be 1, instead, it will be (ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ± X 1). According to the graph above, when the new budget constraint with (V1,P1), the insider will achieve a higher level of utility at U1, as a result, original point D will move to point A with perks F0 and wealth reduced to V0. After the sale, the new constraint is (V2, P2), and point B is the trading point accepts by both parties with perks F and wealth V. As the graph shown, the value of firm is reducing from V* to V is giving by a movement from point D to B. The reduction of wealth is the agency cost by introducing the agency relationship with outsider in the absence of monitoring and bonding. Secondly, the insufficient effort by managers, they may not grow the firm at an optimal rate, since the value of firm does not directly influence on managers salary and individual have different preferences, so, managers may pursue a sub-optimal expansion path for the firm at a different level of investment. The best ways to illustrate this concept is to plot a graph with production opportunity set, indifferent curve and financial market line. According to the graph, the optimal production rate is where the MRS = MRT= -(1-r), but the manager might make the investment decision above the production rate at point A or below it at point B according to their own preference. Therefore, managers investing decision might not be the optimal level for the firm. Without a single market rate, shareholder will not able to delegate their investment decision to managers. Thirdly, both managers and shareholders have different attitude toward risk, the shareholders are more risk loving because they may invest in many companies, so that they are holding less risk if one company go into bankruptcy. Whilst managers tend to be more risk averse when they facing an investment decision, since managers financial security relies on what happen to the firm, if the value of firm falls below what it should be, the risk of takeover or change in management is likely to increased. Conflict also arise when these is a takeover bid to the company, therefore managers will lose their job whilst shareholders usually gain from this takeover as they will receive above the normal share price. Therefore, the investment decision make by managers might not favour the shareholders of investing risky project. By applying a diagram of efficient frontier of an asset portfolio, with x-axis (Risk) and y-axis (expected return). It shows each indifference curve represent a different equilibrium position which depends on varying risk attitude, shareholders will make their investment decision on IC1, but mangers often set their indifferent curve on IC2 where closer to the minimum variance portfolio at point D. Consequently, firm couldnt achieve high return by investing on those less risk assets, which reducing the return on firms revenue. The potential conflicts between managers and shareholders could be mitigated by arranging contractual financial remuneration to the managers. But, the shareholders have to be careful to choose an award that link to their performance and own interest. Furthermore, the agency cost induced by conflict between managers and shareholders can be mitigated by contractual arrangement. It is possible for shareholders (outsider) to monitoring the expenditure of non-pecuniary from managers. Owner-manager can enter a contract with the shareholders (outsider) to restrict their spending on non-pecuniary consumption. According to the graph, without monitoring from outsiders, firms value is V and perks is F at point B. By given the contract, the consumption of perk will restrict to F and value of firm rise to V .The optimal monitoring expenditure on the outsiders, M, is the amount between D-C. If the equality market is competitive, the potential buyers will be indifferent between two contracts: Firstly, potential buyers can purchase of a share of (1- ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ±) of the firm total price of (1- ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ±) v, but giving no right to monitor on managers consumption. Secondly, potential buyers can purchase share of (1- ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ±) of firm total price of (1- ÃÆ'Ã… ½Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ±) V and D-C is the net cost of monitoring and bonding, which could limit the owner-mangers consumption on perks. The expenditure on bonding is a form of contractual guarantees to have financial accounts audited by an external auditor, which contractual limited managers decision making power because it restrict his ability to take advantage on his own profitable opportunities. If the bonding costs were under the control of the owner-mangers and yielded the opportunity set at BCE, it would limit the perk consumption to F. Finally, the optimum occurs at point C, where bonding cost yielded the same opportunity set as the monitoring cost. The solution to reduce agency conflict I is when the shareholders (outsider) perform monitoring to owner-manager (insider).

Friday, May 15, 2020

Influence of Science and Religion on The Strange Case of...

The novella, ‘The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’ was written by Robert Louis Stevenson in 1886. The author was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1850. His family included engineers, scientists, a professor of philosophy, and a religious minister. The scientific and religious sides of Stevensons family reflected in both his personal life and in Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (disapproval between Dr Lanyon and Dr Jekyll). In 1859 Charles Darwin published his famous book called the ‘Origin of Species’ which highly opposed the religious beliefs at the time; the novella itself was also published at such a time when there was extreme controversy between religious and scientific principles. The sense of conflict being created through disapproval†¦show more content†¦The Victorian public referred to Dr Jekyll in the novella to Jack the Ripper from their understanding of duality of Dr Jekyll as rumours aroused in period of the murders of Jack the Ripper that h e may be greatly educated and qualified or may even be of royal birth. The contrast between his identities clearly expresses his duality which highly reflects to Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Mr Hyde is introduced surprisingly to the reader because of his iniquitous action performed on the little girl and this is very different from the way in which Mr Enfield and Mr Utterson are introduced. Mr Utterson and Enfield are introduced to be sincere gentlemen shown to have prestige in the society as Mr Utterson has a respected job of a lawyer and Mr Enfield is the ‘well known man about town’ whereas Mr Hyde is instantly portrayed as sadistic, merciless and ferocious. Mr Hyde â€Å"trampled over the child’s body and left her screaming on the ground† therefore this ensures that the reader’s response to Hyde is negative because only a malevolent person would do this despite being mature. The fact that he trampled over the little girl without any reason suggests that he may attain pleasure from doing such hideous activities which would give Mr Hyde an image of being sadistic The manner in which Hyde is first presented attracts the reader’s a ttention and provokes momentous assumptions from the reader that Mr Hyde isShow MoreRelatedRobert Louis Stevenson Influences1344 Words   |  6 PagesExternal Influences on Stevenson’s Writings â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† by Robert Louis Stevenson was a familiar title to me and prior to reading it I believed I was well versed about the story. I knew that Dr. Jekyll was an intelligent man who experimented with the idea of creating a more powerful version of him that would release his deepest inhibitions. In addition, I believed that the people of the town were not fully aware of Mr. Hyde, only that there was a monsterRead MoreJekyll and Hyde: A Comparision Essay1210 Words   |  5 PagesDr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Stevenson’s â€Å"The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde† was one of the most famous works of horror fiction of all time in English literature. It was based in the nineteenth century. It reflects the influence of two important ideological forces in the Victorian era. The text uses gothic and detective elements to interest the reader as they were very popular at the time. The focus of the text is concentrated on the issue of Jekyll and Hyde’s personality which was describedRead MoreDr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: A View Into Societal Changes in the 19th Century1398 Words   |  6 Pages The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, based on a man with pure intentions, who ends up turning himself into a viscous murderer. Dr. Henry Jekyll is a well-known doctor and respected man, known for doing numerous acts of kindness and work for charities. However, since he was a young boy, he secretly engaged in wrongful behavior, and from then on, was determined to experiment an d find a way to separate his good side from his bad. What would then be known as, Mr. Hyde. Mr. Edward Hyde is describedRead MoreDr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde2521 Words   |  11 PagesUncovering Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde was published in 1886 by Robert Louis Stevenson. The story is based on a London lawyer named Gabriel John Utterson, who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr. Henry Jekyll, and the evil Edward Hyde. This novel was composed as a shilling shocker. A shilling shocker is a short, graphic book. This whole novel is based in Victorian England. Noting the servants, differences between the rich and poorRead MoreThe View of Human Nature Presented in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde3064 Words   |  13 Pagespresent in the novel The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde? The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Question: What view of human nature does Stevenson present in the novel â€Å"The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde†? Throughout Stevenson’s life he experienced things by looking at them in two different perspectives. He later went on to exhibit his experiences by writing a novel about split personality called â€Å"The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde†. This essay will commentRead MoreStevensons Use of Technique to Present Character and Atmosphere in The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde3297 Words   |  14 PagesCharacter and Atmosphere in The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde ‘The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’ by the young Robert Louis Stevenson was published in 1886. The story, which concerns the way in which an individual is made up of different emotions and desires, some good and some evil is told from the point of view of John Utterson. Mr Utterson is a lawyer and friend to the respected and brilliant scientist, Dr. Henry Jekyll. After relating a disturbingRead More Considering The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde as an Effective Representation of Evil3122 Words   |  13 PagesConsidering The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde as an Effective Representation of Evil The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, originally published in 1886 by Robert Louis Stevenson, arguably remains a popular novella even today because of its representations of evil and themes concerned with evil such as morality. Originally written for a Victorian audience, the text follows the conventions of the time - for example, the Georgian style of introducing andRead More Comparing Anxiety and Drug Use in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and The Sign of the Four1568 Words   |  7 PagesUse in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and The Sign of the Four The life experiences and writings of the Victorians are peppered with anxiety.   External influences such as sweeping change or fear of change can produce unease, as seen in the their anxious attitude toward Darwinism and colonialization, which greatly influenced the political, spiritual, and psychological landscape of nineteenth century England.   However, for Sir Arthur Conan Doyles Sherlock Holmes and Robert Louis Stevensons Dr. JekyllRead MoreEssay on Quest for Identity in the Victorian Era1880 Words   |  8 PagesDarwins theories on natural selection and survival of the fittest, Victorians were reevaluating their paths to righteousness.   Without God as a foundation, what were lifes rules?      Peter Bowler argues in Charles Darwin: The Man and His Influence that the old road to salvation had been damaged by one of Darwins greatest triumphs - being the catalyst for the transformation of Victorian thought (150).   Darwin made man question his belief system and, as Richard Altick presents in VictorianRead MoreVictorian Novel9605 Words   |  39 Pages‘rational amusement’(Trollope), texts became cheaper. They were eagerly bought as a casual recreation and for railway reading. That kind of Victorian novel, for the middle-class was a mixture of old values and images seen now through the prism of science: psychology, evolution, sociology. â€Å" Spiritual and temporal worlds are darkened by the shadows of change† and the country was something compared to the heart of revolutions, which referred to the English heydays in terms of urban, social and cultural

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee - 1887 Words

â€Å"Remember it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.† ~ Atticus Finch. Atticus, a major character in Harper Lee s classic novel â€Å"To Kill a Mockingbird† says this after giving the children rifles. Atticus indicates they can shoot at any kind of bird besides the mockingbird, because unlike other birds who will eat peoples plants and ruin their gardens, the mockingbird will just sing. The mockingbird exemplifies one who is weak, or defenseless. To kill a mockingbird is equivalent to one who takes advantage of any who are weak. â€Å"To Kill a Mockingbird†, written by Harper Lee, is often considered a direct influence from her own life in 1936.Published July 11th, 1960, Lee was 30 years old. She died February 19, 2016 at 89 years old. The main character is a ten year old girl named Jean Louise Finch; however, everyone calls her Scout. Her father is Atticus Finch, a defense lawyer who commonly protects black citizens rights. All throughout [the novel] she can be found with her four year older brother Jeremy Finch, nicknamed Jem. Across their street lives one Arthur Radley, at a young age he was forced into isolation by his father, and since then had never left his house, even after his fathers death he continued to hide until the point people thought of him as a ghost and was given the name Boo. The first Point the story tries to make is the need to put yourself in other peoples shoes, and how other people feel. The story starts when Jem and Scout are playing in their back yard, they hearShow MoreRelatedKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1049 Words   |  5 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird: How a Story could be based on True Events in Everyday LifeDaisy GaskinsCoastal Pines Technical Collegeâ€Æ'Harper Lee was born in Monroeville, Alabama. Her father was a former newspaper editor and proprietor, who had served as a state senator and practiced as a lawyer in Monroeville. Also Finch was known as the maiden name of Lee’s mother. With that being said Harper Lee became a writer like her father, but she became a American writer, famous for her race relations novel â€Å"ToRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee1000 Words   |  4 Pagesworld-wide recognition to the many faces of prejudice is an accomplishment of its own. Author Harper Lee has had the honor to accomplish just that through her novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, a moving and inspirational story about a young girl learning the difference between the good and the bad of the world. In the small town of Monroeville, Alabama, Nelle Harper Lee was born on April 28, 1926. Growing up, Harper Lee had three siblings: two sisters and an older brother. She and her siblings grew up modestlyRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1290 Words   |  6 PagesHarper Lee published To Kill a Mockingbird during a rough period in American history, also known as the Civil Rights Movement. This plot dives into the social issues faced by African-Americans in the south, like Tom Robinson. Lee felt that the unfair treatment towards blacks were persistent, not coming to an end any time in the foreseeable future. This dark movement drove her to publish this novel hopeful that it would encourage the society to realize that the harsh racism must stop. Lee effectivelyRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee873 Words   |  4 PagesIn the book, To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee illustrates that â€Å"it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird† throughout the novel by writing innocent characters that have been harmed by evil. Tom Robinson’s persecution is a symbol for the death of a mockingbird. The hunters shooting the bird would in this case be the Maycomb County folk. Lee sets the time in the story in the early 1950s, when the Great Depression was going on and there was poverty everywhere. The mindset of people back then was that blackRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee963 Words   |  4 Pagesgrowing up, when older characters give advice to children or siblings.Growing up is used frequently in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Harper Lee uses the theme growing up in To Kill a Mockingbird to change characters opinion, develop characters through their world, and utilizes prejudice to reveal growing up. One major cause growing up is used in To Kill a Mockingbird is to represent a change of opinion. One part growing up was shown in is through the trial in part two of the novelRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1052 Words   |  5 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee takes place in Maycomb County, Alabama in the late 30s early 40s , after the great depression when poverty and unemployment were widespread throughout the United States. Why is the preconception of racism, discrimination, and antagonism so highly related to some of the characters in this book? People often have a preconceived idea or are biased about one’s decision to live, dress, or talk. Throughout To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee examines the preconceptionRead MoreHarper Lee and to Kill a Mockingbird931 Words   |  4 PagesHarper Lee and her Works Harper Lee knew first hand about the life in the south in the 1930s. She was born in Monroeville, Alabama in 1926 (Castleman 2). Harper Lee was described by one of her friends as Queen of the Tomboys (Castleman 3). Scout Finch, the main character of Lees Novel, To Kill a Mockinbird, was also a tomboy. Many aspects of To Kill a Mockingbird are autobiographical (Castleman 3). Harper Lees parents were Amasa Coleman Lee and Frances Finch Lee. She was the youngestRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1695 Words   |  7 PagesIn To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee presents as a ‘tired old town’ where the inhabitants have ‘nowhere to go’ it is set in the 1930s when prejudices and racism were at a peak. Lee uses Maycomb town to highlight prejudices, racism, poverty and social inequality. In chapter 2 Lee presents the town of Maycomb to be poverty stricken, emphasised through the characterisation of Walter Cunningham. When it is discovered he has no lunch on the first day of school, Scout tries to explain the situation to MissRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1876 Words   |  8 PagesThough Harper Lee only published two novels, her accomplishments are abundant. Throughout her career Lee claimed: the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, Goodreads Choice Awards Best Fiction, and Quill Award for Audio Book. Lee was also inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters. This honor society is a huge accomplishment and is considered the highest recognition for artistic talent and accomplishment in the United States. Along with these accomplishments, herRead MoreKill A Mockingbird, By Harper Lee1197 Words   |  5 Pagessuch as crops, houses, and land, and money was awfully limited. These conflicts construct Harper Lee’s novel, To Kill a Mocking Bird. In To Kill a Mocking Bird, Lee establishes the concurrence of good and evil, meaning whether people are naturally good or naturally evil. Lee uses symbolism, characterization, and plot to portray the instinctive of good and evil. To Kill a Mocking Bird, a novel by Harper Lee takes place during the 1930s in the Southern United States. The protagonist, Scout Finch,

Learning Theories Theory Of Behaviorism - 1037 Words

Learning Theories Essay Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic. The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Good Brophy, 1990). It views the mind as a black box in the sense that response to stimulus can be observed quantitatively, totally ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind. Some key players in the development of the behaviorist theory were Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner. Edward Thorndike did research in animal behavior before becoming interested in human psychology. He set out to apply the methods of exact science to educational problems by emphasizing accurate quantitative†¦show more content†¦Cognitivism and Instructional Design Although cognitive psychology emerged in the late 1950s and began to take over as the dominant theory of learning, it wasn t until the late 1970s that cognitive science began to have its influence on instructional design. Cognitive science began a shift from behavioristic practices which emphasized external behavior, to a concern with the internal mental processes of the mind and how they could be utilized in promoting effective learning. The design models that had been developed in the behaviorist tradition were not simply tossed out, but instead the task analysis and learner analysis parts of the models were embellished. The new models addressed component processes of learning such as knowledge coding and representation, information storage and retrieval as well as the incorporation and integration of new knowledge with previous information (Saettler, 1990). Because Cognitivism and Behaviorism are both governed by an objective view of the nature of knowledge and what it means to kn ow something, the transition from behavioral instructional design principles to those of a cognitive style was not entirely difficult. The goal of instruction remained the communication or transfer of knowledge to learners in the most efficient, effective manner possible (Bednar et al., inShow MoreRelatedBehaviorism And Social Learning Theory1531 Words   |  7 Pages Behaviorism and social learning theory are examples of two mechanistic theories that focus on explaining children’s behavior. Social learning theory emphasizes observational learning and imitation. On the other hand, behaviorism is rooted in focusing on how the environment impacts development. The environment shapes the child’s development as the child strives to adapt to the environment. Both theories deal with explaining behavior and consist of similarities, but are composed of different elementsRead MoreLearning Theories: Behaviorism and Constructivism1575 Words   |  6 Pagesknowledge learning theory that can be employed to get the highest level of learning and training amongst the students. The nature of learning and cultural aspects are two of the mist important elements that can help the teachers decide on a learning theory that is most suitable for their educational structure and environment. In this paper we will highlight the different natures of learning a nd cultural aspects keeping in mind three specific knowledge learning theories: 1) behaviorism and constructivism;Read MoreBehaviorism or Social Cognitive Learning Theory1429 Words   |  6 Pages Behaviorism and social cognitive theories are two great theories to use when setting up a behavior management plan in the classroom. They both offer reinforcements to get desired behaviors. Social cognitive theory focuses on observations that can be used to understand what and how people learn and how they take control of their own behavior (Ormrod, 2011, p. 323). Behaviorism focuses on environmental stimuli that changes individual’s behaviors (Ormrod, 2011, p. 285). Observing and taking careRead MoreLearning Theory Behaviorism Essay example2973 Words   |  12 Pages THE LEARNING THEORY BEHAVIORISM: BEHAVIORIST GORDON ALLPORT AND BURRHUS SKINNER INTRODUCTION The behavoristic approach has exerted a strong influence on American Psychology. The basic ideas of behaviorism are: human behavior is a product of the Stimulus-Response interaction and that behavior is modifiable. It has triggered scientific experiments and the use of statistical procedures. Most importantly, it has turned the attention of psychology to solving real behavior related problemsRead MoreLearning Theories, Behaviorism And Social Cognitive Theory1216 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Learning is a complex process that influences the knowledge and behaviours that humans do, or do not develop to adapt to a variety of situations (Ormrod, 2016). However, for people with disability, this learning process can often be hindered by the lack of abilities, or external and internal stimuli such as prejudice and self-efficacy respectively (Conyers, Enright, Strauser, 1998). The following essay will discuss two learning theories, behaviourism and social cognitive theory (SCT), inRead MoreLearning Theories, Behaviorism, Constructivism, Cognitivism And E Learning1546 Words   |  7 Pagesthree commonly used learning theories (Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism) on online courses. The description of the implication of these learning theories can add to the procedure of learning for the learner. Online learning has developed quickly in the previous couple of years in schools obliging educators to learn compelling approaches to fabricate online groups of learners. There are obstructions to avoid and key segments to incorporate, while making online learning environments. In thisRead Morebehaviorism vs humanism1043 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Behaviorism vs. Humanism Heather Murphy PSY331: Psychology of Learning Instructor Corey Pruitt September 1, 2014 Behaviorism vs. Humanism Behaviorism and humanism are two theories of learning. Both theories are very important, and have many good qualities, which makes it difficult to say that one is better than the other. When it comes to learning, behaviorism does not consider mental processes, rather it looks at our response to stimuli in our environment. Whereas, humanismRead MoreComparison Between Behaviorism and Cognitive Theories in Tesol844 Words   |  4 PagesBETWEEN BEHAVIORISM AND COGNITIVE THEORIES IN TESOL After decades of development of learning theories, many approaches have been inspired and researched basing on the two most popular theories, behaviorism and cognitive theories. 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Ode to a Nightingale and Ode on Melancholy John Keats Essay Example For Students

Ode to a Nightingale and Ode on Melancholy John Keats Essay John Keats’ essay. The poems written by John Keats are primarily concerned with the conflicted nature of the human existence as they look at the human state often with sadness, beauty and the imagination of one’s mind. The metaphysical world, beauty in nature and classical idealism are all pondered upon in Keats’ poems as these ideas are evidently indicated in the two poems â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† and â€Å"Ode To A Nightingale†. The metaphysical world relating to immortality and mortality constantly appears in Keats’ two poems â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† and â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale†. In the second line of the first stanza Keats’ talks about â€Å"Wolf’s bane† which is a poisonous plant often used to commit suicide. Keats’ advises us not to think about suicide and take poisons such as wolf’s bane when melancholy is around. The first two lines of the third stanza in â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale†, â€Å"Fade far away, dissolve and quite forget what thou among the leaves hast never known† tells the readers that he wants to fade away and disappear with the birds which in this line, are expressed as â€Å"thou among the leaves†. The persona is trying to escape using alcohol to become transient. In the last two lines of stanza one in †Ode to Melancholy†, For shade to shade will come too drowsily, and drown the wakeful anguish of the soul†, Keats is trying to deliver the message that melancholy is undoubtedly part of the human condition. He is also aware of the lengthy process in having to endure suffering and pain sequentially to experience joy and content. Keats’ view on the metaphysical world is also explored in the third stanza of â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale†. The third and fourth line â€Å"Here, where men sit and hear each other groan ; Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last grey hairs† are all images of aging as â€Å"palsy† is a shaking movement of most elderly and â€Å"last grey hairs† is something an aged person would have. These images of aging leads to anguish which leads back to mortality because humans will all age as we are not immortal like the nightingale’s song. The metaphysical world is also depicted in â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† in stanza two in the lines â€Å"And hides the green hill in an April shroud;† In this line, he rain that stops vision is symbolized as â€Å"shroud† , also a death reference as it was placed on someone’s head when they died. This rain hides the view of the green hill in an April shroud. â€Å"April† frequently signifies spring which also symbolizes rebirth. This idea is established in the first stanza as Proserpine is mentioned. Keatsâ€⠄¢ use of his final metaphysical world ideas in â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† are highlighted in the very last stanza. †To toll me back from thee to my sole self†, the persona realises that he cannot escape the fact that he is a mortal being and he has to go back to reality. Keats’ refers â€Å"deceiving elf† to the bird who he finds misleading for the reason that it made him feel as if he was immortal. When being contrasted, â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† and â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† are similar in the way that they both present the theme of the metaphysical world. The two poems both have vivid images of death, suicide and lament as well as the views on mortality and immortality in each poem. They are also similar in the way immortality is juxtaposed to Keats’ mortal self. Another key idea that is reflected in the two poems â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† and â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† is the beauty in nature. .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 , .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 .postImageUrl , .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 , .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991:hover , .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991:visited , .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991:active { border:0!important; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991:active , .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991 .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue43de72cdca5bcb73020a708d30b1991:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Anne Frank lived with her family in a pleasant hou EssayThis beauty in nature is shown in â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† in the second and third lines of stanza two from the simile and personification of â€Å"sudden from the heaven like a weeping cloud, That fosters the droop-headed flowers all†. The â€Å"weeping† cloud symbolizes melancholy. The â€Å"droop-headed flowers† can both have a metaphorical or a literal meaning as the metaphorical meaning of â€Å"droop-headed† could be sadness whereas the literal meaning of â€Å"droop-headed† could just be because of the heavy rain. In â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale†, Keats’ sta tes â€Å"I cannot see what flowers are at my feet, nor what soft incense hangs upon the boughs†. This suggests that he is only imagining the scenery because it is too dark to see anything. â€Å"Fast-fading violets cover’d up in leaves† is a metaphor that implies that human lives are fleeting. The sixth line or stanza two in â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† all refers to the beauty of nature. â€Å"Then glut thy sorrow on a morning rose† is telling us to fully enjoy the beauties of nature and life thus accepting melancholy instead of avoiding it. To â€Å"glut† sorrow means to wholly welcome the emotion of grief and despair. The â€Å"morning rose† is the depiction of the beauty of nature, though a â€Å"morning† rose only lives for a short time and Keats’ is implying that the human experience of joy is fleeting. The beauty of nature in â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† is represented by the nightingale and its everlasting song along with the joy it brings to the persona. Keats’ suggests the song will always remain the same no matter what as it is permanent and even if he dies the bird will continue to sing. When â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† and â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† are being compared to one another, one will see a difference in parts of the poem although they are also similar. The two poems by Keats’ both contain the same idea that the human life is transient so just experience life to the fullest whenever one can. Keats’ poem looks at classical idealism in â€Å"Ode on Melancholy†. This is apparent in the first line of the first stanza when Keats’ tells his reader to â€Å"go not to Lethe, neither twist†. This suggests to not look for an easy way out by referring to ‘Lethe’ which in Greek mythology, was a river whose water caused those who drank it to forget the past. Classical idealism is also seen in â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† when â€Å"Lethe† is mentioned also in the fourth line of stanza one. Keats’ is describing how the persona enjoys the feeling of numbness and desire to have drugs injected through their veins and to consume intoxicated poison. Classical idealism in â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† is obvious when Keats’ states â€Å"ruby grape of Proserpine† since Proserpine was the queen of the underworld and goddess of Spring. She and was kidnapped by Pluto and taken to Hades – his kingdom. Proserpine’s mother, Demeter goddess of fertility and grain, grieved for her loss. Demeter saw Proserpine every 6 months and is what they believe as the reason to the change of seasons during the year. This implies that we must bear the cold suffering of Winter before we can take pleasures of beauty and contentment in Spring. Keats’ poems are primarily concerned with classical idealism in â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† when Greek mythology is mentioned in stanza two saying â€Å"the blushful Hippocrene†. Hipporcrene was referred to as the fountain of muses in Greek mythology. â€Å"Hippocrene† was used to present the role of imagination. The biblical allusion of â€Å"Ruth† all links back to the classical idealism idea. Ruth, in the bible, was a widow working in the fields and fell in love with Boaz. Homesick Ruth is alluded by Keats’ to show that the song would have been quite a while back if even Ruth had heard the song and to also present a religious aspect. Through the comparison of the two poems â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† and â€Å"Ode on Melancholy†, one can see how the reflection of classical idealism is a key idea in the poems that Keats’ has composed. These two poems are in comparison to each other as they both refer to the river of â€Å"Lethe† and both contain forms of Greek mythology. .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 , .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 .postImageUrl , .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 , .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8:hover , .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8:visited , .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8:active { border:0!important; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8:active , .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8 .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7a29be08f729545b5487f48ce88843f8:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: In one of the biggest losses in American history, EssayAnd so it can be seen in the two poems â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† and â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† by John Keats are primarily concerned with exploring the conflicted nature of the human existence by the deliverance of his ideas including the metaphysical world, beauty in nature and classical idealism. Even though â€Å"Ode to a Nightingale† looks at nature, transience and mortality and â€Å"Ode on Melancholy† looks at lament and suffering, Keats’ suggests to his audience that pain and joy are joined at hip and in order to fully encounter joy, we must go through pain and sadness also.